Federal law protects workers’ right to organize for the purpose of negotiating with their employers, such as by joining or forming a labor union. Some employers look for creative ways to discourage their employees from organizing. The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) prohibits employers from interfering with activity related to labor organizing, but it often provides leeway allowing employers to discourage workers without quite reaching the level of unlawful coercion. New Jersey employment law is generally favorable to unions, but employers in this state can still take advantage of gaps in the NLRA’s protections. A bill currently pending in the U.S. Congress, the Protecting the Right to Organize (PRO) Act of 2021, would amend the NLRA to include far greater protections for workers. The House of Representatives passed it in March 2021, and it awaits action by the Senate.
Section 7 of the NLRA, codified at 29 U.S.C. § 157, states that employees have the right to organize themselves in order to bargain collectively with their employers. They may do this by joining an existing labor union, or they can form a union of their own. The law also protects workers’ right to engage in “concerted activities” related to labor organizing. Courts have taken a broad view of what counts as protected concerted activity.
The NLRA’s restrictions on employer actions are found in § 8(a) of the law, or 29 U.S.C. § 158(a). Employers may not “interfere with, restrain, or coerce employees” who are exercising their rights under § 7. They also may not discriminate or retaliate against employees because of their protected activities.